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    The importance of random numbers

    It is well known how random number generators play an important role in the blockchain ecosystem, requiring random number services that are safe, unpredicable and reliable. Exisisting public chains such as EOS have provided random number services in the past, but often attacked by hackers due to unproperly design.

    Ultrain designed a new random number generator architecture to solve this problem, providing service to both consensus and Dapps. So how does Ultrain guarantee the security and randomness of the random numbers on the chain? The answer lies in the following two mechanisms:

    The process of generating random numbers is fully decentralized and open to all, so that everyone can participate in generation and verification, while ensuring the minimum probability of manipulation by carefully designing the incentive mechanism.
    The result of the random number passes the highest level of cryptographic randomness check: The National Institute of Standards and Technology SP800-22 test. This result indicates that no one can predict any of the future random numbers, with the random result able to be used directly. No additional processing is required, such as increasing entropy.
    To further explain point one: verifiable random function is used to compute a random number, which the blockchain verifies and aggregates to generate the final result. This mechanism is enhanced with high penalties and a reasonable incentive model to prevent malicious behavior.

    Secondly, Ultrain’s random number process passes the NIST SP800-22 random number test. This certification is the most strict random test in the industry, used to be a requirement for traditional financial transactions and information communication, guaranteeing the security and randomness of the many services built on top of Ultrain.

    Lets explore the specific content of the NIST SP800-22 test:

    This test includes 15 different sections as follows:

    Frequency Test and Block Frequency Test

    1. These two tests count a random number of binary digits. If one of the numbers is obviously more than the other, then the test will not pass. The test checks any sequence of length M for the sequence. If there are any discrepancies the test will not pass.

    2. Run test and Longest Run test (continuous 0/1 test)

    These two tests will count consecutive sequences of binary. Strings that do not conform to statistical characteristics are considered to fail the test. The Longest Run test counts the longest 0 or 1 in any specific sequence of arbitrary length. Demonstrating results outside of the standard distribution will fail.

    1. Binary Matrix Rank Test

    The entire sequence is divided into several non-adjacent sub-matrices, and then the order of the matrix is ​​tested. The purpose of this test is to find out if there is a correlation in the sequence. That is, whether other sequences can be inferred by another sequence, which would seriously affect the predictability of random numbers.

    1. Discrete FFT Test

    Certain sequences can sometimes appear too often, such as 01011. If there are too many instances of this sequence, it will allow attackers to predict future outcomes. For example, after 0101 appears, the next bit is more likely to be 1. This test performs a discrete FFT transformation of the sequence into the frequency domain and then observes if there is a specific number will appear with an abnormal peak.

    1. Non-overlapping/overlapping Template Matching Test (overlap or non-overlapping template test)

    The test moves the window one bit at a time to find a periodic or non-periodic sequence. Generally, it is possible to traverse all possible length of sequence at a certain length. For example, for a width of 4, a total of 16 types of 0000, 0001, 0010, …, 1111 can be found. If any one of the frequencies is abnormal, it will fail.

    1. Universal Statistical Test

    The test is made by compressing a specific sequence. If a specific sequence can be compressed to a shorter extent, then the sequence itself is redundant and autocorrelated, which is predictable, so it cannot be considered random.

    1. Cumulative Sums/ Random Excursion (Variant) test

    If 0 is regarded as -1, then starting from 0 o’clock, left and right, such as 010 is equivalent to walking to -1. This series of tests will study the maximum length of any sequence walked, and the frequency of staying at the point where the walk passes. Any situation that does not match the statistics will fail.

    Ultrain random number testing results

    1.21 million data points were collected from the Ultrain random number generator, and then binarized to form binary data such as the following sequence:








    — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

    generator is<data/sp800test.log>

    — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —


    — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

    3 7 6 9 8 5 6 10 4 6 0.602458 64/64 Frequency

    8 7 7 6 3 4 7 5 6 11 0.568055 63/64 BlockFrequency

    3 7 6 6 7 11 9 4 5 6 0.500934 64/64 CumulativeSums

    4 8 10 9 4 7 5 7 7 3 0.500934 64/64 CumulativeSums

    6 4 8 8 6 5 5 7 5 10 0.804337 63/64 Runs

    10 4 6 10 8 1 5 6 9 5 0.178278 63/64 LongestRun

    3 7 7 8 2 6 10 6 7 8 0.468595 64/64 Rank

    4 9 13 4 7 5 4 11 6 1 0.015963 64/64 FFT

    10 8 7 6 8 5 5 7 4 4 0.739918 63/64 NonOverlappingTemplate

    9 4 5 7 9 9 6 5 7 3 0.602458 64/64 NonOverlappingTemplate

    6 8 3 16 7 5 6 5 4 4 0.014216 62/64 OverlappingTemplate

    8 2 5 8 9 4 9 6 6 7 0.534146 64/64 Universal

    4 5 6 7 9 7 6 7 5 8 0.931952 63/64 ApproximateEntropy

    6 4 5 3 8 5 3 4 3 3 0.689019 43/44 RandomExcursions

    6 2 4 5 4 4 3 6 6 4 0.875539 43/44 RandomExcursions

    10 4 4 5 8 7 12 5 5 4 0.213309 62/64 Serial

    10 8 7 6 7 3 5 7 5 6 0.772760 63/64 LinearComplexity

    For each test case, a pass rate of 60/64 and 41/44 was achieved, which means that it passed all tests.

    All test data has been uploaded to Ultrain’s Github library(, so anyone can repeat the test. In addition, Ultrain will display the random number in the near future via Anyone will be able to generate their own random number data set from Ultrain through this webpage and repeat the test.


    Passing the NIST SP800–22 test demonstrates that Ultrain’s random number generator is safe, reliable, and sufficiently random. This also implies that all random numbers generated by the service can be used without additional processing, since they already guarantee enough randomness. Soon, everyone will be able to generate random numbers of the same security level, thanks to Ultrain.

    Ultrain continues its work with partners to apply random numbers in the blockchain industry, contributing to fairness and security for all.

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    Microsoft Co-Sell Network officially welcomes its first blockchain project collaboration with ULTRAIN


    As of today, Microsoft will officially start selling Ultrain's trusted computation service to external enterprise clientele, reaching its large worldwide customer base. Microsoft’s immense salesforce will encourage clients to join Ultrain’s ecosystem as paying customers. Simultaneously, Sales team staff will receive substantial rewards to further encourage and promote Ultrain’s services to future clients. This will allow Ultrain to better serve future enterprises.


    Co-selling with Microsoft is a collaborative sales program. Its goal is to pave a path for its partners, opening new opportunities for clientele and increasing revenue. By being listed on the Co-selling network, Ultrain will receive exceptional support from numerous experts, as well as the opportunity to share an extensive client network established by Microsoft and its 40,000+ salesforce staff. By partnering with Co-Selling, Ultrain will be able to expand its reach into the global market.


    This is a significant step for Ultrain’s trusted computing service, showing it has a promising future with unlimited opportunities. We look forward to the day that Ultrain’s blockchain based technology will be deployed and used in various industries world-widely, making commercial adoption of blockchain technology a reality.

    To see further details follow the link below:

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    日前,微软销售网络推出其首个区块链合作项目——Ultrain 超脑链。


    即日起,微软将对外正式销售 Ultrain 信任计算企业服务,以其庞大的销售团队在其巨大的全球客户群体中销售 Ultrain 信任计算服务,使其成为 Ultrain 的付费用户。与此同时,微软将对于成功销售 Ultrain 信任计算服务的销售员给予可观的补贴,以此进一步激励其销售 Ultrain 的服务,让 Ultrain 更好更快地服务更多企业。


    Co-selling with Microsoft 是微软一项协作销售计划,旨在推动微软合作伙伴获得更多客户,创造联合收入,达成共赢。通过入驻微软销售网络,Ultrain 可得到微软各专家的协助,并借助微软长期而深厚的客户网络、广阔的合作伙伴生态圈及多达 4 万人的庞大销售团队,更好地拓展全球市场。

    Co-Sell 计划中的合作伙伴发展趋势

    这一步,代表了 Ultrain 信任计算企业服务崭新格局的到来!就让我们共同期待,未来 Ultrain 信任计算服务被广泛地应用在全球各行各业,让更多的商业应用落地变成现实。


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    4/15 Ultrain announced the official launch of its mainnet, marking another step forward for the world’s leading commercial public chain. This achievement makes Ultrain the first blockchain 3.0 project to launch an operational mainnet. A milestone of such magnitude represents a major breakthrough, not only for Ultrain as a project, but for the blockchain industry as whole.


    Ultrain Co-founder & CEO Ray Guo stated “Trusted computing can reshape the boundaries of trust in business world to promote new business model, we hope Ultrain’s trust computing service will help establish a programable business society in the near future”

    Ultrain’s core product is providing reliable, secure, and cost-effective trust computing service to both enterprises and individual developers. Ultrain was founded at the end of 2017 by three top business and technology leaders: Ray Guo — the former technical director of Alibaba’s security business group, Emma Liao — former managing director of Golden Brick Capital, head of IOT for Qihu360, also a seasoned long term M&A banker, and William Li– the former tech head of Ant Financial blockchain team.

    Other core members include Yufeng Shen — Ultrain’s Chief Architect, former senior technical expert of Alibaba’s operating system “AliOS” and core architect Google Canada ChromeOS, and Husen Wang — Ultrain’s Chief Cryptographer and former lead cryptographer at Ant Financial Blockchain. Last but not least, Ultrain’s newest member, Samuel Xiao, completes the team as VP of ecosystem and business development. As a former partner and CTO of Green Pine Dream Capital, Samuel is responsible for investment and post-investment management.

    Such dream team brings together expertise in cutting-edge innovations, sophisticated engineering experience, and extremely powerful global business access naturally attracts the attention of the world’s top investors. Subsequent to the initial seed round funding of 4 million CNY in October 2017, Ultrain successfully completed angel round financing in May 2018, with Morningside Capital as their lead investor, along with APlus capital and DraperDragon. Ultrain announced soon afterwards that it subsequently raised $20 million in private funding from global venture capital firms and crypto funds, placing the company at a 200 million USD valuation. Participants in this round of financing includes Danhua Capital (DHVC), Sky9 Capital, FBG Capital, Ceyuan Venture, 8 Decimal Capital, NGC Capital, ANMI, and other well-known investing entities both within China and overseas.

    Ultrain presents itself as a commercial chain that provides trusted computing services to businesses and commercial clients, leveraging Ultrain’s high performance, low cost, and data protected public chain to help enterprise customers develop blockchain solutions. Ultrain currently is the highest performing blockchain 3.0 project in the world, as well as the only public chain capable of providing commercial service to enterprise clients. Ultrain has also launched on the Microsoft cloud service market and is connected to Microsoft Azure’s joint sales system.

    Microsoft listing has helped Ultrain to expand its enterprise customer base, and is now cooperating with international Top 500 companies, in addition to established partnerships, with companies such as streetwear and e-commerce giant YOHO!, blockchain game developers Unitopia Gaming, and energy company Great Resource Energy. Ultrain is eager to further explore blockchain adoption in the fields of e-commerce, gaming, energy, advertising, healthcare, and philanthropy to name a few.

    Ultrain’s co-founder Emma Liao commented on the progress they made today: “Ultrain will continue focusing on true value creation and try to act as an example for the industry. We will grow in our own way and keep being a global leader.”

    Ultrain’s Mainnet: Next-generation Blockchain Solutions

    | Highlights of Mainnet Function


    Multi-chain architecture for unlimited expansion

    The creation of side chains is based on the business demand in the service layer and can be dynamically adjusted accordingly. Compute and storage resources are separated across each side chain, which allows the network’s transaction capacity to continuously grow. This core technology allows Ultrain to maintain low cost without compromising performance.

    Secure dynamic sharding technology
    Sharding technology is normally restricted by 1/n mining rigs within the network, where n repents the number of concurrent shards allowed. With fewer rigs, network security is reduced and becomes vulnerable for attack, making 1/n a critical constraint that limits the progress of sharding technology. Ultrain’s innovative dynamic randomized node scheduling allows mining rigs to be dynamically assigned between chains or shards. The mining rigs are randomly shuffled and scheduled to different sharding segments at any given moment, which greatly improves the safety of the network.

    Secure and efficient PoS based cross-chain solution
    Ultrain’s solution is a cross-chain protocol between the main and side chains, with light client support, which implements an inter-chain communication mechanism based on committee voting. This is the first time a secure PoS-built light client (eg capable of defending against long-range attacks against PoS consensus) has been achieved.

    Ultrain miner pre-sale approach to accelerate business ecosystem development
    Ultrain’s economic model guarantees that system resources are not oversold, while the network resources are centralized with individual parties. A dynamic and optimized balance of all parties’ interests is maintained, with miners who contribute computing power to the chain receiving expected returns, while cost and quality of resource usage for developers can be predicted and costed accordingly.

    Efficient and accessible smart contract language
    Ultrain’s smart contract coding language is based on TypeScript, while its full stack development framework — Robin and U3 — are based on NodeJs, and the virtual machines are based on WebAssebmly. These languages receive the best of both worlds since they allow easy contract development and deployment without compromising security.

    || Highlight of Ultrain’s Consensus Mechanism


    High TPS performance with short confirmation time
    At the heart of Ultrain’s innovative Random Proof of Stake consensus algorithm is a Verifiable Random Function and a Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. This technical approach had achieved 1000 TPS on a single-chain within a decentralized environment with a 10 second confirmation time. Those two indicators are crucial in the field of public chains, and Ultrain has considerably outperformed other existing public chains.

    Dual layer random number generation architecture created by Ultrain
    Random number generation is the fundamental enabler of RPoS consensus. Ultrain’s implementation is based on a VRF, which Ultrain uses to create an innovative dual-layer architecture that resolves the common issues with random number generation, such as complicated setup processes, refusal to submit or propose, and collusion or manipulation between participants. It also eliminates the concern of network storms. Ultrain’s consensus mechanism has a significant enhancement in security, fairness and performance compared to other projects.

    Consensus optimization based on multiple cryptographic methods
    Voter messages and certificates are combined to form aggregated signatures, which greatly reduces the size of voter messages and facilitates rapid message exchange. In addition, it supports a lightweight client and cross-chain requirements, reducing the size required for a client’s blockchain synchronization. Aggregate signatures also supports faster broadcasting of blocks while maintaining the system’s TPS performance and security.

    ||| UltrainOne Function Highlights



    Ultrain’s official App — UltrainOne — provides multiple users functions, such as an official multi-chain wallet with an elegant user interface and fast transaction completion. UltrainOne is currently allowing users to create a mainnet account for free as a limited time offer. It is the go-to App to experience fast transactions, monitor real-time mining revenue from Ultrain’s chain, as well as receive the latest news and updates from Ultrain.

    The official launch of the Ultrain’s mainnet symbolizes the start of a new era for public blockchain 3.0 technology. Ultrain is the world’s first decentralized, high-performance public chain to implement a randomized dynamic sharding architecture, as well as the first to provide services to commercial clients. This mainnet launch marks a major milestone for Ultrain, and represents another leap towards its ultimate goal of creating the programmable business society of the future.

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    Ultrain超脑时空是一家全球领先的信任计算技术基础设施公司,为广大企业和个人提供可信、安全、高效、高性价比的信任计算服务。Ultrain成立于2017年,由前阿里巴巴安全事业群技术总监郭睿、前金砖资本董事总经理/奇虎360智能硬件投资总经理Emma廖志宇、前蚂蚁金服区块链团队技术负责人李宁联合创立,并由前阿里巴巴操作系统AliOS高级技术专家/前GoogleCanada ChromeOS 核心架构师沈宇峰担任首席架构师,前蚂蚁金服区块链密码学家Husen王虎森担任首席密码学家,前松禾资本基金合伙人兼CTO肖颖浩担任生态合作副总裁。





    | 主网功能特点


    • 无限扩容的主-侧链架构:侧链的创建和销毁完全基于上层业务需求,可以动态进行,侧链间实现了完全的计算和存储隔离,因此全网交易容量能做到无限水平扩容,是Ultrain实现高性能和低成本的核心技术;

    • 高安全性的动态分片技术:在分片技术下,由于每个分片只有主网1/n台矿机构成(n为分片数),安全性较低,较容易受到攻击,是分片技术极难解决的问题。Ultrain全球独创并实现的矿机随机调度机制,组成每个分片的矿机不是固定的,而是动态构成,分片间的矿机随机互相跨片转移调度,极大的提升了安全性;

    • 安全高效的POS通用跨链机制:Ultrain的跨链定位为系统内部主侧链间的跨链协议,实现了主侧链互为轻客户端支持,并基于委员会投票实现跨链间的通信机制,首次在 PoS类共识下实现安全轻客户端 (light client) (e.g. 能抵御针对 PoS 共识的long range attack), 从而确保了安全的跨链通信(Inter-Blockchain Communication);

    • 加速商业生态的预售制资源套餐模型:Ultrain经济模型的设计,保证了不超卖系统资源,不稀释现有资源拥有者的资源占比,达到了计算资源提供者的收益,开发者资源使用的成本和资源使用质量之间的动态最优平衡;

    • 快速高效的智能合约语言:Ultrain采用基于TypeScript 的智能合约编程语言,基于 NodeJS 的一站式智能合约开发框架Robin + U3和基于WebAssebmly 的虚拟机,兼顾了智能合约开发和运行的安全和效率;

    || RPoS共识功能特点


    • 高TPS和短确认时间:RPoS共识的核心是VRF+BFT,通过该技术特点,我们成功的实现了去中心化条件下的单链TPS1000,以及确认时间10秒这两个公链最重要的性能指标,性能远远高于现有的其他公链;

    • 独创的双层随机数生成架构:最为RPoS共识的核心随机数生成,Ultrain基于可验证随机函数(VRF),创造性的采用二层随机数架构,一方面有效的解决“成员拒绝提交”,“setup过程复杂”,“成员抢跑”,“成员串谋操纵”等多种困扰随机数生成的问题;另一方面解决了Algorand算法中proposer数量不确定导致的网络风暴问题,极大的增强了共识的安全性,公平性和性能;

    • 基于多种密码学手段的共识优化:通过聚合签名的形式,将所有投票者消息和证书聚合在一起,大大减小投票者消息的大小,方便消息的快速到达。另外支持轻量级客户端和跨链,减小客户端同步块信息所需要的消息大小;通过对网络层拓扑和通信的优化,支持更快的传播速度和更大的块传播,同时不影响系统安全性,保证了系统高TPS目标的达成;

    ||| UltrainOne功能特点

    齐聚多项功能的Ultrain官方APP UltrainOne。UltrainOne APP包含官方多链钱包,可供用户限时免费创建主网账户,体验秒速转账,在交易性能上极大地满足用户需求,并具备实时挖矿监控功能,包含热门资讯活动,供用户掌握Ultrain一手信息。


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    This Article is written by @HELLOBTCCOLLEGE, Article represent the view of the author and does not represent the view of this project nor this media.


    2018 was a year that saw an outbreak of new public blockchain projects, with many different chains launching main nets. Marketing driven slogans such as “blockchain 3.0”, or even the extremes of “Ethereum killer”, were common place for a period of time. After the initial hype of some projects, many public chains soon fell into silence. In fact, it is common for some projects to pack their bags and head home, considering it a “job well done” after launching their main net.

    Few public chain projects are concerned with actual application adoption and the expansion of their ecosystem, which is an essential component of creating useful blockchain infrastructure that serves the real economy. Ultrain, which hopes to promote the early arrival of a programmable business society, is among the few projects with adoption.

    In the first quarter of 2019, China’s largest streetwear e-commerce platform YOHO! established a secondary trading platform for sneakers called UFO. The platform employs blockchain technology to maintain authentic information throughout the C2C sneaker trading service. Ultrain’s substantive cooperation with YOHO! is an eye-catching event for the industry, representing a significant step forward for the industry.

    Ultrain’s partnerships is not limited to YOHO!, but includes companies such as:

    1. In the first quarter of this year, Unitopia, Electric Soul Blockchain Laboratory’s blockchain development wing, announced that it is investing millions of yuan to purchase a dedicated side chain service from Ultrain’s commercial network. This sidechain will supply blockchain computing power to their gaming platform.
    2. A privately owned green energy company using blockchain and Internet of Things technology to create low-cost mutual trust to allow carbon credit creation and exchange.

    In the highly competitive public chain landscape, how does Ultrain differentiate itself?

    Innovative Technology Solution

    In business, the ability to efficiently solve problems at low cost is a key factor in determining whether a new technology should be adopted. Ultrain’s problem solving capacity has the following factors:

    1. High performance and efficiency.
      Through the innovative RPoS consensus mechanism, 1% of nodes in the network are randomly selected to participate in consensus, which results in a significant improvement in TPS, while remaining highly decentralized. In addition, Ultrain optimizes the development of smart contracts based on TypeScript, making development very fast and convenient.
      As Rui Guo, Ultrain’s founder, said: “The initial value of Ultrain is a well-established underlying infrastructure technology. The goal of the Ultrain team is to build a reliable, efficient, easy-to-use infrastructure that truly promotes blockchain applications”.

    2. Cost management, more acceptable pricing.
      The Ultrain is dedicated to providing trusted computing services to enterprises, building a shared economy based on trusted computing power. When a company purchases a trusted computing service, Ultrain assigns the resources from computing nodes in the network to provide trusted computing to the client. Ultrain’s sidechain architecture significantly reduces transaction costs, with the final transfer cost being only 1/20 of Ethereum, which is suitable for large-scale commercial applications.

    3. Solved privacy concerns for commercial companies.
      For business applications, not only are performance and cost required, but privacy is also critical. Due to the transparent nature of blockchain data, anyone can normally view the information on chain. However, for sensitive information ultimate transparency is not desirable. Ultrain’s zero-knowledge proof tool can provide identity proofs without leaking private information, which not only provides a solution for information privacy, but also greatly increases computing speed.

    4. Customized blockchain business solutions and services for enterprises

    More and more enterprises have shown interest in the blockchain industry, as the space matures. However, due to the wide variety of application scenarios and technical requirements, providing customized services that meet the professional demand of enterprise clients is crucial. As Guo, Ultrain’s CEO, said “We are creating a one-stop service for clients that fulfill clients at any level of understanding”.

    The Dream Team

    One of the reasons for Ultrain’s commercial success is a world class team. Ultrain’s CEO, Guo Rui, as the former technical director at Alibaba, has a deep understanding of the pain points facing enterprises, and the significance of digitization in enterprise empowerment. Co-founder and CSO, Liao Zhiyu, has a rich background in finance and has extensive experience in corporate operations, accelerating Ultrain’s commercial promotion, publicity and community building. Li Ning, co-founder and CTO, has more than 11 years of experience in the Internet industry and was the technical leader of Alipay’s blockchain team. His understanding of blockchain’s underlying architecture is profound. Under his leadership, Ultrain’s technology team has provided excellent solutions and maintained the stable operation and development of the Ultrain chain.

    In addition to the three founders, other core members also have glamorous resumes. Ultrain’s chief architect, Shen Yufeng, was a senior technical expert at Alibaba and a core architect at Google; his chief cryptographer Wang Husen has served as an expert at Ant Finance’s cloud computing division.

    Ultrain experienced architects and cryptographers optimized the overall technical architecture and encryption algorithms to create a chain suitable for commercial applications. Coupled with Ultrain’s ecosystem development department, there is a compelling case for widespread cooperation with enterprise.

    Quality Commercial Ecosystem

    When the underlying public chain technology’s performance is guaranteed, the commercial value of a project depends to a large extent on the health of the business ecosystem and the scale of cooperation, which is why Ultrain has focused on business development involving multiple industries.

    In the e-commerce industry, Ultrain is partnered with the largest domestic street ware e-commerce trading platform — YOHO! — to link product and trading information, to provably authenticate goods.
    In the field of gaming, Ultrain’s cooperation with the publicly listed gaming company Electric Soul to create decentralized board games, which solved the long-standing problem of fairness in digital games.

    Through the above examples, it is not difficult to find that Ultrain effectively solves trust problems in different application scenarios. Ultrain’s efficient, low-cost, and widely implemented trusted computation is the framework of a new way of doing business. We expect many more large-scale commercial applications to come.

    In Conclusion:
    Ultrain provides commercial solutions to well-known enterprises in both domestic and internationals market, with commercial applications emerging in various industries, serving as validation of Ultrain’s technology and team.
    The launch of the main network on April 15 is a significant milestone for Ultrain, which will result in more business partners for the emerging company. This is significant for the ecosystem’s growth, increasing the commercial value of the underlying public chain. We look forward for subsequent adoption and development from this blockchain 3.0 project, as a leader in a new field.

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    When asked what the most important component of any entrepreneurial project is, I believe most people will answer: the team.

    Ultrain is currently developing a prosperous community ecosystem, growing both at home and abroad. Ultrain’s “dream team” is at the core of this growth, with numerous innovative theories, extensive engineering experience, and a strong connection to global capital and busineses.

    Ultrain was founded at the end of 2017 by three all-star business and technology leaders. They are Guo Rui, the former technical director of Alibaba’s security business group, Emma Liao Zhiyu, former managing director of Golden Brick Capital TMT, and Li Ning, head of IoT investment for Qihoo 360 and former head of Ant Financial’s blockchain team. Other core members joined soon after, such as Ultrain’s Chief Architect, Shen Yufeng, who is the former senior technical expert of Alibaba’s operating system “AliOS” and core architect Google Canada ChromeOS. Husen Wang joined shortly after as Chief Cryptographer, thanks to his experience as the former lead cryptographer at Ant Financial Blockchain.

    Most recently, Samuel Xiao joined the dazzling team as Ultrian’s vice president of ecosystem and business development.


    Samuel received his Master of Computer Science at Sun Yat-Sen University. He has been engaged in Internet investment and consulting for over a decade, with extensive experience in digital transformation, business model design, IT planning, architecture design and system implementation.

    He served as Senior Consultant Manager for IBM’s Global Consulting Services, where he was responsible for end-to-end processes, from IT strategic planning to complex system implementation. Samuel was responsible for clients such as SF Express, Yuantong Express, China Mobile, Huawei and other large enterprises.

    Samuel is also a former partner and CTO of the Green Pine Dream Capital, responsible for investment and post-investment management of corporate SaaS, AI and big data projects.

    We are proud to announce that, as of today, Samuel has become a member of the Ultrain core team. His roll is dedicated to onboarding commercial applications to Ultrain and building a collaborative ecosystem. Samuel will work closely with the other five members of the core team to create a new business ecosystem, reshaping the trust boundaries of the business community through technology, and jointly realizing Ultrain’s ultimate dream — to create a programmable business society of the future.

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  • R


    在4月10日晚举行的第20期 Neutrino 追问 AMA中, Ultrain 联合创始人& CEO 郭睿作为特邀嘉宾表示,在RPoS共识机制中,核心是随机数和 BFT 算法。随机数这块,Ultrain 独创了双层随机数生成架构;基于可验证随机函数( VRF ),通过创造性的采用二层随机数架构,一方面有效的解决“成员拒绝提交”,“setup过程复杂”,“成员抢跑”,“成员串谋操纵”等多种困扰随机数生成的问题;另一方面解决了 Algorand 算法中 proposer 数量不确定导致的网络风暴问题,极大的增强了共识的安全性,公平性和性能。


    话题主持@Neutrino 问题1:目前,不仅有以太坊、EOS、波场这样的先发项目,还有Conflux、Algorand等大牛加持的公链新势力。先请教一下郭总,在公链赛道上,你们是如何定位自己的?以及您是如何看待目前公链竞争与未来发展的?






    而公链的竞争,在我看来主要会体现在三个地方:1.组成公链的矿机数量;2.公链上 DApp 的数量;3.公链上的钱包地址数。矿机数量代表的该链的去中心化程度和安全程度;DApp 数量代表了公链可以创造的商业价值的高低;钱包地址数,代表了公链的用户数量的多少。这三个值直接反应了公链生态发展是否良性,最终公链也会是在这三点发生竞争。而未来公链在我看来,就如果操作系统一样,常见的只有5-6个左右。

    话题主持@Neutrino 问题2:之前在我们社群也有过多次公链扩容的交流。这道题就直接点,Ultrain是如何实现扩容的?与其他扩容方案(如分片、分层、Plasma、状态通道等)有什么创新的地方?

    郭睿:我们的扩容方案简单来说是“动态多分片”架构,从名字上可以看出来在类型上我们属于分片范畴,而且是计算和存储都实现了分片,也就是不同的分片保存和负责实现相互独立的业务数据和逻辑;“动态”意味着矿工节点在各个分片间是随机调度的,这样极大的保证了各个分片的安全性,抵御了 1% attack (1/n)。


    1)分片: 我们也属于分片范畴,总的来说和其他的分片方案比较,我们在实现上较领先的做到了安全和扩容的平衡性;具体的,和 PoW 类的分片方案比,我们在块确认时间(10 s)上有很大的优势,其他的方案大多在几分钟级别;和 PoS 类的分片方案比,我们在安全性上更好。

    2)分层:如果是指在 layer 0/1/2,是一个通用的划分机制,我们属于 layer 1的扩容技术。

    1. Plasma, 这个是链下的扩容方案,他的协议不负责保证子链创建,维护和安全性,而且相对来说链间通信的最终性会有一定的损失;我们的多分片架构是配合经济激励机制来通盘考虑分片的创建,维护和安全机制的,我们整个的设计和实现在垂直整合上考虑的比较多,而且已经落地实现了。

    4)状态通道 同样的也是链下(off-chain + layer 2)的扩容方案,而且一般狭义状态通道主要是聚焦在提升转账性能,且需要一定的中心化机构来帮助维护这个机制;我们是原生的 on-chain + layer 1 的扩容方案,适用于通用的计算,且是完全去中心化的设计。

    话题主持@Neutrino 问题3:随机可信共识(R-POS)是一种很新颖的共识机制,Ultrain 如何保障这种“随机”是公平可信、不被攻击篡改的?还有相比业界其他主流的共识机制(POW、POS 等)都经过长期且大规模的验证,R-POS 在安全、稳定、及去中心化 等方面如何获得市场认可?

    郭睿:在RPoS共识机制中,核心是随机数和 BFT 算法。随机数这块,Ultrain 独创了双层随机数生成架构;基于可验证随机函数( VRF ),通过创造性的采用二层随机数架构,一方面有效的解决“成员拒绝提交”,“setup过程复杂”,“成员抢跑”,“成员串谋操纵”等多种困扰随机数生成的问题;另一方面解决了 Algorand 算法中 proposer 数量不确定导致的网络风暴问题,极大的增强了共识的安全性,公平性和性能。

    具体到随机数生成算法的设计,我们一方面经过了对现有 Randao/PVSS 等算法的仔细研究实验和分析,最终采用的底层算法是国际公认安全的密码学算法,同时最终设计方案也听取一些欧洲密码学专家的参考意见,并且在近期,Ultrain 随机数生成结果通过了美国国家安全局 NIST 的 NIST SP800-22 测试,所以在随机性和公平性方面有比较好的理论支持。共识的具体内容在我们的黄皮书里面有详细描述,可以供学术界和业内同行 review 。

    关于R-PoS 算法的安全,稳定及去中心化如何获得认可,这确实是一个需要长期努力的过程,我们是从如下几个方面来考虑的:

    首先稳定,我们测试网从去年10月份起,已经稳定运行了半年多了,最高峰时测试矿机有近60台,大部分都是由社区爱好者提供的,分布在全球各地,这点可以从一个方面验证 R-PoS 共识的稳定性。

    去中心化方面,可以直接通过构成 Ultrain 网络的矿机数量,以及出块矿机的分布来验证,Ultrain 网络现在由160台矿机构成,出块分布非常的均匀,可以看到所有的矿机都有平均的几率获得出块的机会,这是去中心化的最好的体现,这些数据都是在 Ultrain 浏览器可查的。


    话题主持@Neutrino 问题4:在最新发布的技术黄皮书中,提到Ultrain主网采用主侧链架构。这种架构有什么优势吗?一条主链能够支撑多少条侧链的运行?随着运行时间及用户规模的扩大,主侧链产生的数据会存放在哪里?以及侧链与侧链之间是否可以跨链通信?


    在我们这次上线的版本中,我们的一级主侧链架构下,大约可以支撑上万个节点量级的网络的运行 (单链 80~320 节点 * up to ~50 条侧链),我们单链的 TPS 保守估计是1000, 这样的容量已经能够允许Ultrain 网络在相当长的时间内支撑大量的严肃的大规模商业应用。整网的 TPS 可以达到5万以上。数据的话因为我们做了存储的分片,所以各个链的数据只会在各个链自己的节点上单独存储。


    侧链与侧链之间可以跨链通信的,我们提供了完整的 PoS 机制下轻客户端的机制和主侧链通信的实现范例,侧链间的安全通信都可以基于这个实现范例来做。相当于我们提供了侧链间通信的协议实现,具体侧链间通讯,可以依据具体的应用场景,参考我们的范例进行实现。

    话题主持@Neutrino 问题5: Ultrain 是如何设计经济模型的?会有哪些利益相关方参与 Token 分配?它有哪些特点?还有,在经济模型设计上,郭总有什么经验可分享的,以避免其他人踩坑。

    郭睿:Ultrain 是通过提供信任计算服务为企业创造新的收入,收取服务费的模式盈利。信任计算在形式上类似云计算,我们知道,阿里云的大量成本来自于服务器采购,是一个重资产运营的模式。

    Ultrain 采用的是共享经济的轻资产运营模式,Ultrain 网络中的信任计算节点(即普通的服务器)由大众提供,Ultrain 网络整合这些服务器的 CPU 运算能力形成信任计算的服务,将其售卖给企业,企业为其购买的信任计算支付服务费,服务费的80%自动转给提供服务器的大众,服务费的20%支付给Ultrain 。


    企业支付给 Ultrain 信任计算的使用费,会充值在 Ultrain 主链由智能合约自动管理的账户中,该智能合约会按每台计算机实际提供的算力,自动扣减企业账户中的相应金额,自动转账到计算机拥有者的账户中。而 Ultrain 分到的20%里面,并不是都提供给 Ultrain 团队的,又分为三份提供给生态中的参与者:

    Ultrain技术团队:这就是我们现在的团队,分配到使用费的 5%。技术团队承担了 Ultrain 软件的开发、维护、升级等一系列技术工作,为避免比特币 core team 的情况出现,技术团队应在 Ultrain 的生态发展中获得收益,而且该收益应该与生态经济大小挂钩。

    社区团队:使用费的 5%。Ultrain 区块链公链技术的推广,很大程度上依赖于社区的支持和贡献,Ultrain 在社区的建设上,采用 Hub 机制,我们希望在全球重点城市建立 Ultrain Hub,每个城市都有几名 hub leader 负责 Ultrain 在当地的运营、市场和推广工作。我们每年会从 Ultrain 的使用费中分出 5% 奖励给当年表现优异的头部 Hub 团队,而对于优异的定义,将会采用社区投票的形式由社区来决定。

    DApp 开发者:使用费的 10%。Ultrain 区块链公链的繁荣,取决于链上 DApp 数量的多少,以及该 DApp 的活跃度。我们每年或每季度会从 Ultrain 的使用费中分出 10% 奖励给链上的 DApp 应用,原则上该奖励不会是均分的模式,而是奖励表现优异的 DApp,其具体标准将会采用社区投票的形式由社区来决定。




    话题主持@Neutrino 问题6:对公链项目而言,往往是得开发者则得未来。你们如何吸引开发者加入到Ultrain中来?Robin编程框架有什么特点?在Ultrain上开发智能合约或运行 Dapp 需要哪些成本?如果从别的链迁移到Ultrain上是否会很复杂?需要重新编写代码吗?














    话题主持@Neutrino 问题7:Ultrain要整合区块链+AI+IoT等多种前沿科技,从而构建一个可编程商业社会,但目前这些技术离大规模商业化都存在一定距离,这是否存在画饼卖概念之嫌?目前项目进展如何?有哪些落地的实例应用?以及离实现最终目标还需要迈过哪些挑战?




    在商业落地方面,我们从今年的1月份已经对外提供商业服务,在电商行业,超脑链和国内最大的潮牌电商交易平台- 有货Yoho进行深度合作,将商品信息和交易信息上链,以此保障用户能买到货真价实的商品。在游戏领域,超脑链和首家A股主板上市游戏公司电魂合作,打造去中心化棋牌游戏,解决了困扰棋牌类游戏很久的公平性问题。超脑链赋能实体经济的场景还包括:在新能源领域,与新三板上市公司宏日新能源合作,通过区块链技术为零成本地解决了碳排放数据的信任问题;为国内最大的体育竞猜公司,国内优秀的物流公司等提供区块链解决方案。



    社区用户提问:郭总,您好,前面您提到,Ultrain网络整合大众服务器的CPU运算能力形成信任计算的服务,将其售卖给企业,企业为其购买的信任计算支付服务费。这模式好像有点像 Uber、滴滴,那你们在里面是否扮演了中间商的角色? 会成为另一个中心化的寡头吗?另外如果大众的服务器掉线了是否会影响系统稳定性?










    社区用户提问: 核心商业模式,就是整合闲散的计算资源并出售,白皮书里说包括 CPU 计算、GPU 计算、内存计算、硬盘的资源,还包括带宽的资源等等,都可以通过超脑链的管理和调度,提供对外服务。请问是是如何调用零散资源的?还是一定要有矿工购买专用矿机在后面提供支持?硬件成本是否和中心化服务一样拥有高成本的问题?


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  • R


    超硬核的技术力量,强大的商业合作资源,海内外繁荣的生态社区建设... ...作为一支科技创新项目,Ultrain的这一切闪光点,背靠的都是一支齐聚尖端创新理论、丰富工程实现经验、强大全球资本与商业运作能力的“梦之队”。

    2017年底成立,Ultrain由前阿里巴巴安全事业群技术总监郭睿,前金砖资本董事总经理、奇虎360智能硬件投资总经理Emma廖志宇,前蚂蚁金服区块链团队技术负责人李宁联合创立。此后,前阿里巴巴操作系统AliOS高级技术专家、前Google Canada ChromeOS 核心架构师沈宇峰、前蚂蚁金服区块链密码学家Husen王虎森也陆续加入Ultrain,分别担任首席架构师、首席密码学家。




    Ultrain生态合作副总裁 Samuel肖颖浩






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  • R



    Ultrain之所以走进校园大力发展高校社区,是为了让更多年轻而充满活力的学子们更好地加入到区块链这个行业中来,共同贡献出他们的创意与智慧,借此孵化出更多有价值的应用,实现更多技术突破,共建一个庞大而又美好的区块链生态宇宙。到如今,Draper University of Heroes、悉尼新南威尔士大学、浙江大学、四川大学、电子科技大学、南京大学、重庆大学等等海内外诸多知名高校都已留下了Ultrain的足迹。















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